Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), also called chronic granulocytic leukemia, is a condition where the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells. This report focuses on the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia using regular care process. Creating a chronic myeloid leukemia therapy program, patients are invited to consider clinical trials as an alternative. Clinical trials involve the use of new approaches in therapy which see whether they’re safe, effective, and possibly better than standard therapy. In clinical trials, new drugs or a combination of treatments may be used. Your doctor can allow you to review treatment options and advise whether to use clinical trials or not.
What is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?
Normally, the bone marrow produces blood stem cells which become older over time as a myeloid stem cell or lymphoid stem cell. A lymphoid stem cell becomes a white blood cells whereas myeloid become red blood cells, platelets, or granulocytes. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia is a condition in which a lot of blood stem cells become granulocytes and become white blood cells. It’s a slowly progressive disease that normally happens during or after middle age, seldom occurring among children. The condition may affect the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Frequent symptoms of chronic myeloid leukemia include night sweats, fever, and fatigue. Most people with CML experience a gene mutation called Philadelphia chromosome. Standard tests used to analyze blood and bone marrow can diagnose chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Treatment Review
Whilst performing treatment for CML leukemia, physicians may function to think of patient’s treatment program. These may combine various kinds of treatments. Cchronic myeloid leukemia drugs choices are available. Treatment options have significantly improved during the past couple of decades, completely changing how drugs are administered to help prolong life. Treatment recommendations depend on multiple variables like the stage of the disease, the patient’s taste, potential side effects, and general wellbeing. Treatment for CML leukemia also have treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer treatment.
Targeted therapy pinpoints the cancer’s specific genes, proteins, and tissue environments that lead to cancer growth survival. These remedies help to block growth and spread of this illness to cells, limiting damage to healthy cells. For CML, the goal is a protein known as BCR-ABL tyrosine-kinase enzyme. Five common drugs used to target this protein include:
- Imatinib (Gleevec): the first target therapy approved for treatment of CML in U.S.. It’s a pill taken twice daily. It’s been demonstrated to work better than chemotherapy in CML therapy and has limited side effects. Virtually all patients have their blood count returned to normal and their spleen shrink.
- Dasatinib (Sprycel): An FDA-approved drug used as initial treatment for a patient newly diagnosed. Sprycel has a variety of side effects, including anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and pulmonary hypertension.
- Nilotinib (Tasigna): Employed in the initial stage of the disease or if other medications have failed, Its unwanted effects include low blood counts, nausea, rash, headache, nausea, and itching. Other more rare side effects include high blood glucose level, pancreas/liver swelling, and fluid build-up.
- Bosutinib (Bosulif): An FDA-approved drug used when other targeted therapies failed or caused a lot of side effects. The most common side effects include nausea, low levels of blood cells, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, abdominal pain, allergic reactions, fever, and liver issues.
- Ponatinib (Iclusig): Another FDA-approved drug used while the administration of TKIs isn’t successful or the patient encounters many side effects. Ponatinib targets CML cells with a specific mutation called T3151, which make the cells resistant to additional TKIs. The most common side effects include abdominal pain, rash, high blood pressure, dry skin, headache, fatigue, joint pain, fever, and abdominal pain.
Chemotherapy is a chronic myeloid leukemia treatment that helps to destroy cancer cells by stopping their ability to grow or divide. Both common chemotherapy drugs for CML are hydroxyurea and omacetaxine mepesuccinate. An FDA-approved chemotherapy which can help reunite white blood cells to normal levels within months of diagnosis is hydroxyurea. Another FDA-approved way of patients with chronic or accelerated CML which failed to react to the TKIs is omacetaxine mepesuccinate.
Stem Cell/Bone Marrow Transplantation
Stem cell transplantation is another possible chronic myeloid leukemia therapy. Hematopoietic stem cells replace the affected bone marrow. This then develops into new, healthy bone marrow. It’s a risky process that depends on a variety of factors, like the stage of CML, age, overall health, and previous treatments. Autologous (AUTO) and allogeneic (ALLO) are two different types of stem cell transplantations available. They are based on the origin of replacement cells. The primary purpose of both is to destroy all cancer cells from the blood, marrow, and any other portion of the body.
Immunotherapy, also called biological therapy, helps boost the body’s immune system. Manufactured therapy materials aim to restore immune system functions. Interferon is a good example of such immunotherapy which will help reduce red blood cells and sometimes reduce cells which have the Philadelphia chromosome.
Regardless, any chronic myeloid leukemia therapy may bring about several of side effects. Good care to relieve symptoms and side effects ought to be a component of chronic myeloid leukemia medicine . Before treatment starts, speak with your doctor about possible treatment side effects and palliative care available. Remember to notify your doctor immediately if you experience any problems during treatment.